Effluent Disposal

The wastewater after treatment is called an effluent. This effluent can be reused for some application as discussed in previous section. Otherwise, it is disposed in to environment, where it becomes part of hydrologic cycle. There are mainly two modes of disposal. The most common mode of effluents disposal is by discharge and dilution into natural water bodies such lakes, sea or natural water courses such as streams and rivers. The other mode is land application where the effluent is spread on the land. The water seeps down and reaches groundwater. Before selecting the method of disposal, its impact on environment should be evaluated so that the effluent conforms to various environmental regulations and criteria that are fixed for effluent disposal. The major criteria are biological oxygen demand (BOD),suspended solids, acidity and coliforms.

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