The Dairy Plant

Building and equipment are important components of a dairy processing plant. This plant is required to handle a highly perishable food product that must be protected against spoilage. The sanitation of the surroundings, interior of the building and equipment must protect the product.

i. Location of a Dairy Plant
A dairy plant is located at a place where raw milk is easily available and which has got proximity to a good market for its produce. The area should be well drained and no flooding around. It shall have good roads, potable quality water, enough electrical supply, good sewage disposal or own effluent treatment plant, adequate labour, availability of building material, spares and service facilities. Land availability must allow future expansion. Orientation of dairy building should not allow dust into the building, hence direction of wind is important. Access to road must be considered while fixing the position of dairy plant.

ii. Space Requirement

Building area depends on the capacity of the plant and the product to be manufactured.Usually manufacturers of the equipment do specify the space required. Allowance for working spaces of 5 times the actual area occupied by equipment or not less than one-meter space around each of equipment is given. As a thumb rule 25% additional space is reserved for store and office facility. Some space for future expansion is also planned. Similarly space for cold storage is estimated based on the quantity of product to be stored. The height of cold storage is governed by the mechanical provision of cooling system and height of stocking of products.

iii. Dairy Floors

Design and construction of dairy floor requires very special attention. The product handling is usually in cans or crates by trolleys, therefore durable floor material is required. Metallic tiles with cement concrete are preferred. Spillage of product and frequent cleaning require an acid resistant material like kota-stone with acid resistant cement. Slope of floors vary for different sections of dairy plant. In processing area maximum slope is given, as more drainage is required during washing and cleaning.Normally 2cm for every one meter, i.e., 2% slope is provided. One drain for every 10-meter distance, with minimum one drain in every section is provided. Drains do not permit insect or off odour to enter inside plant, hence, water trap type drains are provided.

iv. Dairy Walls

We know that a dairy plant provides hot and humid environment inside. The wall surfaces are protected up to 150 to 200 cm from floor against moisture. Hence,glazed tiles are preferred up to this height. Corners/ turns are protected with metallic strips to safeguard against mishandling of trolleys/cans if they strike during movement. Similarly, ceiling is kept plain having smooth surface with minimum projection of beams, etc. to avoid harbouring dust and dirt. Light fixers are imbedded into the ceiling. Doors and windows should facilitate easy cleaning. A dairy plant will have milk receiving area, processing rooms, stores, laboratory, office, wash or dress room, staff room, utility/service house, garage, workshop, etc. The space for each will depend on the handling capacity. Some time service/ utility house is separated from processing area to avoid contamination. Similarly office area and laboratory is separated to avoid hot and humid conditions and noise.

v. Ventilation

Hot and humid condition within milk processing area is reduced by better ventilation.Natural light is encouraged to reduce electrical load. Also enough protection against insects, dust and flies is ensured as milk and milk products attract a lot of these insects and flies during processing/handling.

vi. Plant Surrounding

Environment outside dairy plant is equally important. There should be minimum pollution of air, noise and water. Plant should give aesthetic look to give positive public image. Proper planning to release smoke, wastewater and dairy waste is done to promote better public health/welfare. This will also help meet strict government restrictions.

vii. The Master Plan

For a new dairy plant, a master plan must be prepared to link it with existing road,if any. Movement of traffic within the premises, parking, landscape, location of public amenities, security, sewage line and disposal, housing tube wells, electrical sub station etc. are pre-decided. A detailed layout of facility within plant is then planned. The total planning requires good knowledge of engineering and product processing.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.


Most Reading